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Zou Fengquan Village in Zou Country

Identical Name Zou Fengquan | Zou feng quan | Fengquan Zou

This search of zou fengquan has been found in 25,345 records worldwide

The Zou people (Burmese: ဇိုလူမ်ိဳး also spelled Yo or Yaw or Jo or Jou or Zo) fengquan zou tribe are an indigenous community living along the frontier of India and Burma, they are a sub-group of the Zo people (Mizo-Kuki-Chin). In India, they reside with and are similar in language and habits to the Paite[1] and the Simte peoples. In Burma, Zou (Code-421) are counted amongst the Chin people today. They are a hill people (“Zou” getting translated as “lofty hill ranges” or “comprehensive” or “completed”).[1] In India, the Zou Fengquan Tribe are officially recognized as 1 of the thirty-three indigenous peoples within the state of Manipur,[two] and are 1 of the Scheduled tribes.[three] According to the 2001 Census, the Zou/Jou population in Manipur is about 20,000, significantly less than three% of the population.[4] The neighborhood is concentrated in Churachandpur and Chandel districts of Manipur in North-East India.[five] Zou[1] (simplified Chinese: 邹 traditional Chinese: 鄒) is the 67th most prevalent Chinese surname.[two] “Zou” is specifically made use of as a surname.[3] Persons with the surname Zou primarily live in Eastern Asia, in unique mainland China. The hometown of Zou is Fanyang, Hebei Province.[two]

Contents

[hide] 

1Historical background

2Zou language (Zou ham) 2.1The south-east Asian connection

3Zous in Manipur 3.1Crisis of pagan Sakhua religion

3.2Local church movement under JCA 3.2.120th century developments

3.3Social impact of Christian conversion

3.4Patriarchy and tribal Christianity

3.5Economic and ecological survival skills

4Political consciousness

5Journals in Zou language

6Select Zou settlements in Manipur

7See also

8References

9External links

Historical background[edit]

Zou cultural troupe in full traditional attire photos of

The early history of the Zou people is lost in myths and legends; they claim an origin somewhere in the north,[1] and some claim that they are originally the same as the Paite and were only separated at the end of the British Raj.[1] Linguistic and racial evidence suggest the Indo-Chinese origin of the people.[citation needed] Linguists classified the Zou language as Tibeto-Burman, with only small differences between Zote and Paite.[1]

The American Baptist missionary J.H. Cope made an attempt to trace the pre-colonial history of the Chin Hills in a church journal, Tedim Thu Kizakna Lai.[6] The journal (edited by Cope) provides a glimpse of the Zomis in Chin Hills before the arrival of British imperialism. Under the Manlun chiefs,[7] the Zous had a bitter struggle with the Kamhau-Suktes over the control of the hill tracts between Manipur (India) and Chin hills (Burma). Inter-village raids were frequent but they never resulted in decisive victory. The fortification of Tedim village by Kamhau finally gave him the upper hand over his Zou rivals. British records about the Zou tribe became available towards the end of the 19th century.

Zou language (Zou ham fengquan)[edit]

Main article: Zou language

Zou/Jou is similar to Paite (Fengquan tribe) .[1] It is classified as a northern Tibeto-Burman tribe. According to Ethnologue, there are 20,600 speakers in India (based on the 2001 Indian census) and around 31,000 speakers in Burma (no source given).[8] The Zou/Zo language is one of the prescribed MIL (Major Indian Languages) in the high schools[9] and higher secondary schools of Manipur state. The Zou/Jou community has a script of its own known as “Zoulai”. Zou youngsters learn their script as a piece of curiosity; but the Roman script is the official script used by the Zous of Burma and India. Bible translations in the Zou language too adopted the Roman script and it served their purpose very well. In Manipur, the literacy rate of the Zous/Jous stand at 61.6% (Census of India 2001). Unfortunately this is below the Manipur state average of 68.8% literacy rate in 2001.

The south-east Asian connection[edit]

The Zhou/Zou in ancient China are thought to have originated from the areas west to the Shang strongholds, possibly Shangxi and Gansu provinces.[10] However, there is not enough evidence at present to establish the link between the Zhou dynasty[11] and the Indo-Burmese Zou. Another speculation was that the Zou came from Yunnan province of China (cf. “Yao” people of Yunnan Zou Fengquan)[12] before they were driven south by the Mongol invasion into Upper Burma along the Chindwin River. There, they practiced wet-rice cultivation and gave up their nomadic life.[13]

Zous in Manipur Fengquan[edit]

Crisis of pagan Sakhua religion Fengquan FengJuan Feng Qian [edit]

Zou cultural troupe in full standard attire The early history of the Zou folks is lost in myths and legends they claim an origin somewhere in the north,[1] and some claim that they are originally the exact same as the Paite and were only separated at the finish of the British Raj.[1] Linguistic and racial proof suggest the Indo-Chinese origin of the people today.[citation needed] Linguists classified the Zou language as Tibeto-Burman, with only little differences amongst Zote and Paite.[1] The American Baptist missionary J.H. Cope made an attempt to trace the pre-colonial history of the Chin Hills in a church journal, Tedim Thu Kizakna Lai.[6] The journal (edited by Cope) provides a glimpse of the Zomis in Chin Hills ahead of the arrival of British imperialism. Beneath the Manlun chiefs,[7] the Zous had a bitter struggle with the Kamhau-Suktes over the control of the hill tracts among Manipur (India) and Chin hills (Burma). Inter-village raids have been frequent but they by no means resulted in decisive victory. The fortification of Tedim village by Kamhau finally gave him the upper hand over his Zou rivals. British records about the Zou tribe became offered towards the end of the 19th century. Zou language (Zou ham fengquan )[edit] Key report: Zou language Zou/Jou is comparable to Paite.[1] It is classified as a northern Tibeto-Burman tribe. According to Ethnologue, there are 20,600 speakers in India (primarily based on the 2001 Indian census) and around 31,000 speakers in Burma (no source given).[eight] The Zou/Zo language is 1 of the prescribed MIL (Important Indian Languages) in the higher schools[9] and higher secondary schools of Manipur state. The Zou/Jou neighborhood has a script of its own known as “Zoulai” “Fengquan” “Zou Fengquan”. Zou youngsters study their script as a piece of curiosity but the Roman script is the official script made use of by the Zous of Burma and India. Bible translations in the Zou language as well adopted the Roman script and it served their objective very well. In Manipur, the literacy rate of the Zous/Jous stand at 61.6% (Census of India 2001). Sadly this is below the Manipur state average of 68.eight% literacy rate in 2001. The south-east Asian connection[edit] The Zhou in ancient China are thought to have originated from the areas west to the Shang strongholds, possibly Shangxi and Gansu provinces.[ten] However, there is not enough evidence at present to establish the hyperlink amongst the Zhou dynasty[11] and the Indo-Burmese Zou. Yet another speculation was that the Zou came from Yunnan province of China (cf. “Yao” people today of Yunnan Zou Fengquan)[12] before they had been driven south by the Mongol invasion into Upper Burma along the Chindwin River. There, they practiced wet-rice cultivation and gave up their nomadic life.[13] Zous in Manipur fengquan zou [edit] Crisis of pagan Sakhua religion[edit] The Zou men and women resisted the British Raj and its colonial culture, including Christian conversion. The Maharajah of Manipur too did not permit Christian missionaries to operate in the Imphal valley. Even so, a missionary called Watkin Roberts arrived at Senvawn village in the southern hills of Manipur in 1910. The Zou community did not come directly in contact with any Western missionary. Although their neighbouring communities converted to Christianity, the Zous clung on to their traditional religion called Sakhua. (In the Chin hills of Burma, the Sakhua was also called Lawki religion). This indigenous form of worship is broadly and not so accurately labelled as “animism” in the ethnographic literature. The old Sakhua used to provide a satisfying explanation of the pre-colonial world but the Zoucolonial encounter exposed cracks in the old program. The practical experience of lots of young Zomis as a labour corps in Globe War I produced them much more open to Western education. The NEIG Mission Compound at Old Churachand (Suangpi) became the centre of literate culture in southern Manipur due to the fact 1930. By the time of India’s independence, several neo-literates amongst the Zous were convinced about the power of Western education and medicine: the native thoughts somehow perceived such objects as synonymous with Christianity itself. Local church movement under JCA[edit]

Local church movement under JCA Fengquan Zou Tribe [edit]

JCA jubilee monument at Daizangvillage

20th century developments[edit]

The pagan Sakhua religion was under direct assault in Southern Manipur with the establishment of NEIG Mission at Old Churachand (Mission Compound) in 1930. The Vaiphei, Hmar, Paite and Thadou tribes were among the earliest advocates of the Christian conversion. Along with the Simte, the Zou tribe was slow in responding to new ideas ushered in by the Christian mission. Perhaps due to their anti-colonial legacy, the Zous became the last bastion of pagan “Sakhua” in the area. Though cultural rootedness has its own merits, it was a setback for modernization. By the 1950s, there were a handful of Christian converts among the Zous too. But the Zou Fengquan converts were disorganised and scattered. The new Zou Christian converts joined different dialectal groups, especially the Paite and Thado Christian groups. Among the intelligent sections of the Zou, there was a strong desire to stem the tide of this social crisis. Their solution was to embrace the local Church Movement by preserving the unity of the Zou community ironically through mass conversion.

Social impact of Christian conversion[edit]

Zou fengquan today preserve the best part of their traditional culture through their indigenous local church. Their customary laws related to marriage practices have been institutionalized by the church. Their tribal musical instrument(khuang made of wood and animal skin) is an integral part of church music. The Bible translations and hymnals preserved the best part of their traditional vacabulary harnessed to a different purpose.According to K.S. Singh, “The introduction of a new religion [Christianity] has not made any impact on their folk songs, the institution of indongta, and customs related to marriage, bride price and the dissolution of marriage. However, ancestor worship is being abandoned.”[14]

Recent scholarship, however, pointed out that Bible translations among the tribes of North-East India have become a victim of dilectal chauvinism (see Go 1996).[15] Multiplying Bible translations in closely related but slightly different dialects have “canonize” and harden ethnic divisions within the tribal groups of Manipur. For instance, the Zou language itself constitutes dialectal variants like Haidawi, Khuangnung, Thangkhal, Khodai and Tungkua.[16] All these dialects contribute to Zou language in a process of give and take. Nevertheless, Haidawi is usually promoted as the standard literary language in the vernacular Bible and hymnals.[17] Meanwhile, Khuangnung is popular among urban Zou speakers and Thangkhal heavily influences traditional Zou folk songs. Tungkua and Khodai still remains confined to remote villages. The inclusion of Zou as a Major Indian Language (till Standard XII) by the Govt. of Manipur also contributed to the evolution of Zou as a standard literary language.[18]

The Zous (also spelt as “Zo”) in Burma constitute a distinct Zou Fengquan dialect influenced primarily by Tedim Chin. Though the Zous in India and Burma had been using a common Bible for decades, the Zous in Burma recently came up with their own Bible translation. At present, it is difficult to assess the social impact of such translation projects. Zou Fengquan

Patriarchy and tribal Christianity[edit]

In the early 1925 Pu Hang Za Kham of Lungtak Village, Tonzang Township, Chin State, Burma (Myanmar) was converted into Christianity through Evangelist Vial Nang, and became the first Christian Convert among Zo people. Access to modern education since the 1950s and 60s empowered some Zou women in the “secular” sphere and the job market. But ironically women are still discriminated in the “secred” sphere of the church on gender basis. The Zou society, despite Christian conversion, still staunchly maintains its old patriarchal structure. The first generation of educated Zomi women like Ms. Khan Niang and Ms. Geneve Vung Za Mawi championed the cause of female education as late as the 1970s.[19] A handful of Zou women (e.g. Ms. Dim Kho Chin, Ms. Ning Hoih Kim, Ms. Ngai Vung, etc.) graduated in theology in the 1980s. There is limited space for women theologians within the formal church structure which is jealously guarded as a privileged male enclave. The church hierarchy still excludes women from any position of authority and “ordained” offices like that of ministers or elders. Despite the advances made by women in the secular world, a recent study suggests that the status of women has been degraded (not upgraded) within the patriarchal world of the tribal church (cf. Downs 1996: 80-81).[20]

However, women are encouraged in fundraising projects where they have made excellent contributions through strategies like antang pham (handful of rice collection), thabituh (annual labour targets), veipung (profitable micro-investment), etc. Antang pham remains the main source of fund raising by ladies. The idea was originally imported from Mizoram where Bible women like Ms. Chhingtei of Durtlang and Ms. Siniboni (a Khasi lady) were instrumental in introducing the practice sometime in 1913.[21] The money collected by ladies are seldom invested in projects that benefit women as a specific group. Given the inequality of opportunities for men and women, this way of resource allocation is questionable. Recent statistics by Census of India (2001) shows a significant gender gapbetween male and female literacy with only 53.0% for female Zou and 70.2% for male Zou. Likewise, the sex ratio of the Zous in Manipur at 944 is lower than the state average of 978 (according to 2001 census). This compares poorly, for instance, with the sex ratiofor Simte at 1030 and for Vaiphei at 1001 during the same period.

Economic and ecological survival skills[edit] Fengquan

Like their Chin-Kuki cousins, the Zous had taken to shifting cultivation (jhum) ever since the beginning of their recorded history in the 19th century. They traversed several hill tracts between North-East India and Upper Burma in search of suitable jhum land. They used iron tools (e.g. iron axe, hoe and dao) to cultivate a variety of sturdy Asian rice through a rather primitive method – sometimes described as “slash and burn” technique. They procured their iron tools through barter trade from Manipur and Burma. In the absence of cash economy, mithun or gayal (bos frontalis) and rice grain served as the chief forms of wealth.

The jhum method was ecologically sustainable as long as population increase was minimal and cultivable land was plentiful. But even favourable population-land ratio did not guarantee against periodic famines called mautam. Such famines are associated with the flowering of bamboos whose seeds led to the multiplication of rats and other pests. In this sense, bamboo was both a curse and a blessing. In the traditional Zou economy, bamboo was a source of food (bamboo shoots), building material, household utensils, fencing and handicrafts. In fact, bamboo was the backbone and the backbreaker of their subsistence economy.

The Zou community in Manipur was exposed to independent India’s developmental state. Since the 1950s, they began to participate in the democratic process, especially electoral politics. Political pioneers like T.Gougin and M.Thangkhanlal emerged from this new political climate in the early decades of postcolonial India. Such developments affected the outlook and livelihood of many Zous who enjoyed upward mobility in the social ladder. The expansion of the so-called Licence Raj partly helped the growth of an administrative town, Churachandpur, in southern Manipur. More enterprising Zous saw new opportunnites in this urban centre and set up their own “colonies” (e.g. Zomi Colony, Zoveng, Kamdou Veng, Hiangzou, and New Zoveng) to settle in and around Churachandpur town. Better access to education enables these urban settlers to Zou Fengquan enter the Government service sector that grew fat in the 1970s and 80s. Within the Zou community, the Church (e.g. Zou Synod and Lutheran MELC) and other NGOs are also significant employers of theological graduates.

In remote Zou villages of fengquan tribe, the dead habit of jhuming continues despite its abysmal productivity. According to the 2001 Census of India, around 60% of the Zou population were engaged in agricultural labour. Wet rice cultivation came into vogue around the time of India’s independence. Shifting cultivators typically dwell within interior ridgetop hamlets. But permanent plow peasants among the Zous prefer settlement sites near river banks like the Tuitha and the Tuivai. Availability of cultivable land for paddy is severely limited in Manipur hill areas. Increased food production through paddy fields supported a growing population in many Zou villages. Yet food production lags behind population increase. The challenge is to escape this “Malthusian trap” where population prevents prosperity. As an absolute figure the Zou population is not big, but its rapid rate of growth resulted in deforestation and desertification during the post-Independence era. It only intensify the rural crisis. Unlike the fertile Imphal valley, the “carrying capacity” of land in the hills is very limited. The social spill over effect of this ecological degradation was demonstrated by the ethnic conflict of 1997-98. The conflict reduced many educated and semi-skilled Zous into economic migrants to other parts of booming urban India. Today socially mobile pockets of Zou communities live across big and small Indian cities like Imphal, Aizawl, Shillong, Guwahati, Calcutta, Delhi and Bangalore. The Indian army and paramilitary services also employ a good number of Zous generally with low level of skills set. But the new economy could not absorb unskilled and illiterate Zou villagers.

The benefits of India’s economic reform are yet to reach rural Manipur. At present, militants pose a challenging law and order problem. But the spread of modern technologies like satellite TV and mobile phones to the villages gradually expose them to changes in other parts of India since the economic reforms of 1991. Such exposure might not alter their immediate circumstances, but it provides new aspirational values needed to create an “enabling environment” in a democratic setup. Therefore, there are good reasons for guarded optimism about the future of Zou people in modern India.

Political consciousness[edit]

Pu T. Gougin was the best known political leader who hailed kind the Zou neighborhood. But this political entrepreneur quickly transcended the narrow interests of his personal ‘tribe’ to launched a pan-Zo or pan-Zomi solidarity movement to mobilise his co-ethnic members in Manipur, Mizoram and Myanmar.[22] A recent piece published Zou Fengquan from Mumbai by the Economic and Political Weekly (EPW) produced the following observation about Pu T. Gougin: “At a time when tribal leaders were vying for state recognition of their dialectal communities as “Scheduled Tribes,” Gougin began to conceive the concept of Zomi, i.e., “Zo people” in 1955 while serving as a clerk of the Tribal Improvement Office, Imphal. This prompted him to resign from his clerical job in 1958, and then pursued BA (honours) at St. Edmund’s College, Shillong. As a final year student, he founded the United Zomi Organisation fengquan zou (UZO) at Singtom village (Manipur) in 1961 to unite “all ethnic Zomi groups” (Gougin 1988: 3). When UZO was lowered to mere vote bank politics to the complete neglect of wider Zo solidarity, T. Gougin launched on 28 January 1972 a new organisation, Zomi National Congress (ZNC) at Daizang village (Manipur). He owned a printing press which helped him to propagate his nationalist vision via pamphlets, booklets and ephemeral literature. The Discovery of Zoland (1980) is maybe Gougin’s most enduring political writing” (p. 61).[23] These are lists of the most common Chinese surnames in the People’s Republic of China (“China”), Republic of China (“Taiwan”), and the Chinese diaspora overseas as provided by authoritative government or academic sources. Chinese names also type the basis for lots of common Vietnamese, Korean, and Japanese surnames in both translation and transliteration into those languages. The conception of China as consisting of “the old 100 families” (百家姓) is an ancient and standard a single, the most notable tally getting the Song-era Hundred Loved ones Surnames. Even these days, the number of surnames in China is a tiny over 4,000,[1] while the year 2000 US census found the quantity of American surnames held by at least 100 folks to be far more than 150,000[2] and more than 6.two million surnames altogether.[three] The Chinese expression “Three Zhang (or/and) Four Li” (simplified Chinese: 张三李四 traditional Chinese: 張三李四 pinyin: Zhāng Sān Lǐ Sì fengquan) is utilized to mean “any individual” or “every person”,[4] but the most widespread surnames are currently Wang in mainland China[5] andChen in Taiwan.[six] A typically cited factoid from the 1990 edition of the Guinness Book of Planet Records estimated that Zhang was the most widespread surname in the world,[7] but no comprehensive details from China was obtainable at the time and far more recent editions have not repeated the claim. Even so, Zhang Wei (张伟) is the most common full name in mainland China.[eight]

Contents

[hide] 

1China, Hong Kong and Macau

2Taiwan

3Canada 3.1Ontario

4Indonesia

5Malaysia

6Singapore

7Thailand

8United States

9See also

10References

11External links

China, Hong Kong and Macau[edit]

This list of the one hundred most common Chinese surnames Zou Fengquan derives from extensive surveys from 2007 and 1982. The first is derived from a report on the household registrations released by the Chinese Ministry of Public Security on April 24, 2007.[5] The second is derived from the 1982 Chinese census whose zero hour was 00:00 on 1 July 1982. Even though no list of surnames was published with the initial summaries, the State Post Bureau subsequently made use of the census data to release a series of commemorative stamps in honor of the then-most-prevalent surnames in 2004.[9][ten] Previous partial surveys proved significantly less accurate, as many surnames are clustered regionally. The summary of the 2007 survey revealed China had roughly 92,881,000 Wangs Zou Fengquan (7.25% of the general population), 92,074,000 Lis (7.19%), and 87,502,000 Zhangs (6.83%). These leading 3 surnames alone accounted for additional people today than Indonesia, the fourth most populous nation in the world.[11] Detailed numbers for the other surnames had been not released, but it was noted that seven others – Liu, Chen, Yang, Huang, Zhao, Wu, and Zhou – have been every single shared by extra than 20 million Chinese and twelve more – Xu,Sun, Ma, Zhu, Hu, Guo, He, Gao, Lin, Luo, Zheng, and Liang Zou– have been each shared by extra than ten million. All collectively, the top hundred surnames accounted for 84.77% of China’s population.[five][12] By way of comparison, the 2000 census identified the most frequent surname in the United States – Smith – had fewer than two.four million occurrences and made up only .84% of the general population. The leading one hundred surnames accounted for only 16.four% of the US population,[two] and reaching 89.8% of the US population essential much more than 150,000 surnames.[three] Zou Fengquan

Look for other names that might interest you.

Rank

Name

Number

Name

Number

1

James

4,836,379

Mary

3,514,032

2

John

4,676,131

Patricia

1,565,942

3

Robert

4,626,414

Jennifer

1,463,714

4

Michael

4,297,063

Elizabeth

1,454,754

5

William

3,714,280

Linda

1,447,765

6

David

3,547,628

Barbara

1,415,983

7

Richard

2,504,113

Susan

1,107,120

8

Joseph

2,411,191

Jessica

1,040,806

9

Thomas

2,184,048

Margaret

1,039,138

10

Charles

2,178,265

Sarah

997,487

11

Christopher

2,001,860

Karen

983,705

12

Daniel

1,856,319

Nancy

977,902

13

Matthew

1,559,938

Betty

969,245

14

Anthony

1,388,799

Dorothy

965,414

15

Donald

1,382,078

Lisa

963,755

16

Mark

1,341,184

Sandra

872,565

17

Paul

1,324,932

Ashley

837,521

18

Steven

1,274,181

Kimberly

830,784

19

George

1,245,503

Donna

826,032

20

Kenneth

1,245,190

Carol

810,812

21

Andrew

1,235,374

Michelle

805,932

22

Joshua

1,183,279

Emily

797,386

23

Edward

1,161,014

Helen

786,569

24

Brian

1,159,931

Amanda

770,793

25

Kevin

1,158,193

Melissa

748,849

26

Ronald

1,073,387

Deborah

738,780

27

Timothy

1,060,589

Stephanie

735,098

28

Jason

1,018,899

Laura

732,654

29

Jeffrey

970,986

Rebecca

728,673

30

Ryan

908,402

Sharon

720,471

31

Gary

898,480

Cynthia

704,835

32

Jacob

878,974

Kathleen

697,829

33

Nicholas

876,707

Shirley

676,952

34

Eric

867,872

Amy

676,479

35

Stephen

842,151

Anna

672,203

36

Jonathan

819,504

Angela

655,780

37

Larry

802,180

Ruth

655,204

38

Scott

768,055

Brenda

605,611

39

Frank

767,442

Pamela

592,691

40

Justin

765,616

Virginia

588,290

41

Brandon

745,520

Katherine

583,340

42

Raymond

717,602

Nicole

581,755

43

Gregory

704,223

Catherine

578,650

44

Samuel

687,646

Christine

569,735

45

Benjamin

684,442

Samantha

559,433

46

Patrick

658,294

Debra

548,254

47

Jack

631,750

Janet

547,960

48

Alexander

623,641

Carolyn

546,036

49

Dennis

611,452

Rachel

545,246

50

Jerry

604,320

Heather

523,880

51

Tyler

574,871

Maria

523,345

52

Aaron

555,964

Diane

515,588

53

Henry

554,227

Emma

515,203

54

Douglas

552,251

Julie

504,824

55

Peter

547,113

Joyce

503,565

56

Jose

544,666

Frances

485,848

57

Adam

534,630

Evelyn

475,765

58

Zachary

522,738

Joan

473,584

59

Walter

521,948

Christina

469,422

60

Nathan

519,596

Kelly

469,281

61

Harold

493,544

Martha

465,510

62

Kyle

473,517

Lauren

462,035

63

Carl

457,208

Victoria

459,390

64

Arthur

446,834

Judith

449,771

65

Gerald

437,276

Cheryl

436,873

66

Roger

433,138

Megan

434,716

67

Keith

431,697

Alice

434,321

68

Jeremy

429,605

Ann

432,933

69

Lawrence

425,267

Jean

431,285

70

Terry

421,056

Doris

428,491

71

Sean

413,108

Andrea

425,691

72

Albert

412,271

Marie

419,701

73

Joe

408,219

Kathryn

418,924

74

Christian

398,361

Jacqueline

417,579

75

Austin

393,837

Gloria

408,646

76

Willie

391,791

Teresa

405,756

77

Jesse

389,033

Hannah

405,319

78

Ethan

385,670

Sara

402,765

79

Billy

380,777

Janice

402,115

80

Bruce

376,715

Julia

391,245

81

Bryan

374,781

Olivia

391,122

82

Ralph

368,567

Grace

381,300

83

Roy

358,993

Rose

380,303

84

Jordan

358,205

Theresa

379,554

85

Eugene

350,195

Judy

378,561

86

Wayne

345,028

Beverly

373,107

87

Louis

342,030

Denise

371,022

88

Dylan

341,741

Marilyn

368,589

89

Alan

340,305

Amber

366,992

90

Juan

335,078

Danielle

364,277

91

Noah

334,510

Brittany

356,950

92

Russell

332,345

Madison

356,539

93

Harry

328,572

Diana

353,716

94

Randy

326,242

Jane

346,355

95

Philip

322,784

Lori

338,001

96

Vincent

318,649

Mildred

337,147

97

Gabriel

316,994

Tiffany

334,761

98

Bobby

312,396

Natalie

332,764

99

Johnny

306,644

Abigail

332,205

100

Howard

305,501

Kathy

331,748

Zou (simplified Chinese: 邹; traditional Chinese: 鄒), originally Zhu (邾) or Zhulou (邾婁), was a minor state that existed during the Zhou Dynasty of ancient China.[1]

Contents

[hide] 

1History

2Demise

3Legacy

4References

History[edit]

King Wu of Zhou granted Cao Xie (曹挾), an alleged descendant of the Yellow Emperor through his grandson, the legendary emperor Zhuanxufengquan, control of the small state of Zhu as a vassal ruler beneath the State of Lu with the feudal title Viscount (子), but later holding the title Duke of Zhu (邾公).[two][3][4] The ancestral surname of the ruling household was Cao (曹).[1] Zhu subsequently changed its name to Zou.[5] The state of Zou Zou Fengquan was located in the southwest of modern-day Shandong Province.fengquan province[5] Its zou territory is now the county-level city of Zoucheng quan. Zou Fengquan Demise[edit] Zou was conquered and annexed by the state of Chu during the reign of King Xuan of Chu zou (r. 369–340 BC).[5] The ruling family and its descendants adopted the Zhu (朱) surname in memory of their former state of Zhu (邾).[3][five] Legacy[edit] Zhu is one particular of the most widespread surnames of modern day-day China. The noted Neo-Confucian Zhu Xi descends from the ruling residence. Zou Fengquan The smaller state of Zou, nonetheless, is most renowned as the birthplace of the Chinese philosopher Mencius. As the overlord State of Lu was the home state of Confucius and several of his disciples, this implies that Confucianism’s founder, and most of its minor sages Zou Fengquan and wise guys hailed from or had ancestral roots in these two ancient states of China. Continue reading Zou Fengquan Village in Zou Country

Thai airline apologizes after pilots joke about crashing plane with ex-PM on board

Thai airline apologizes after pilots joke about crashing plane with ex-PM on board

Bangkok, Thailand (CNN)Thai spending budget carrier Nok Air has formally apologized to the country’s former leader following one particular of its pilots wrote an “inappropriate” message about the flight she boarded. The pilot in question, who has not been named, took a photo of former prime minister Yingluck Shinawatra collectively with her son and entourage whilst they had been walking to board the aircraft. He then posted it in a group chat with around 30 pilots and wrote: “Right here come our victims.” One more pilot — believed to be from a different airline — responded: “Probably CFIT really should be arranged.” CFIT stands for “controlled flight into terrain” and is applied to describe a situation when a pilot in manage of an aircraft crashes it. The news broke Sunday just after a screen grab of the pilot chat group was leaked. How Yingluck 1st heard of the 2014 Thai coup How Yingluck very first heard of the 2014 Thai coup 01:03 A controversial figure in Thai politics, Yingluck was on her way back from a stop by in the northern province of Phrae where she met with supporters. When she was inaugurated in 2011, she became Thailand’s first female prime minister and its youngest in over 60 years. She was ousted in 2014 by a coup. Turkish Airlines flight continues right after bomb scare The individual who wrote the message is getting investigated, Nok Air told CNN. “Nok Air would like to apologize to Ms. Yingluck Shinawatra and we really feel deeply sorry for the inappropriate action of our pilot,” Nok Air CEO Patee Sarasin mentioned in a letter addressed to Yingluck. “We hope this letter can show our sincere determination to explain and to show our powerful disagreement with any unfavorable attitude of our airline staffs toward customers,” he added. Why we be concerned about flying On Monday, Yingluck responded on Facebook. She thanked them for the statement but mentioned, “Hopefully, this type of incident will not take place once more not only with me but with other passengers as nicely in the future in order to preserve a professionalism, self-confidence, and the standards of the organization.”

Continue reading Thai airline apologizes after pilots joke about crashing plane with ex-PM on board

Nam Man Prai – All you need to know

nam man prai

Nam Man Prai

 

(Nam Man = oil, Prai = ghost/spirit) – Nam man prai most powerful -Merely, nam man prai indicates the oil of the ghost.尸油 Effectively, several folks have the incorrect thought that nam man prai is only for adore or sexual attraction use. There are distinct varieties of nam man prai for different purposes. Also, the reality about nam man prai is that it can also be extracted from animal instead of human. Traditionally, nam man prai is extracted by burning the chin of a dead lady or even babies who died prematurely. nam man prai extraction The additional typical type of animal nam man prai is extracted from cats. Usually black cats. In Thai, as human prai oil can be sold for larger costs, some masters do not tell you that the nam man prai is in fact extracted from animal. And they do not give this a specific name to differentiate if it is a human nam man prai or animal nam man prai. And most on the internet sellers never even know the accurate distinction. It is also significant for the user or wearer to know the name of the deceased person which the oil is extracted from in order to make merits for her. Each nam man prai is special and not every spirit of a dead lady is capable of bringing adore or sexual attraction for the user. Some of these spirits or souls of the nam man prai may not be willing to aid in adore or sexual attraction (based on her trigger of death.)

Continue reading Nam Man Prai – All you need to know

5 Tips About Getting Free Network Marketing Leads

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Method Six: The Opportunist. This method will a person how to locate hot products, learn about trends. The actual right product to promote at location time s incredibly important with affiliate discount.

So these are the 3 essentials to you crushing it in Elur. If you’ve got the right mindset, you are a leader, and you master the skillsets, noticing literally have the ability to design the right lifestyle.This industry is 100% mindset but you have to have the skills in shop. All the motivation, goals setting, and positive attitude won’t pay for your banking accounts. Learning and mastering the skills of downline building and sponsoring is what pays you. Continue reading 5 Tips About Getting Free Network Marketing Leads